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Author(s): Tikendra Kumar Verma1, K. L. Tiwari2, S. K. Jadhav3

Email(s): 1jadhav9862@gmail.com

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    S.o.S. in Biotechnology, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur (C.G.) 492010, India

Published In:   Volume - 1,      Issue - 1,     Year - 2019


Cite this article:
Tikendra Kumar Verma, K. L. Tiwari and S. K. Jadhav (2019) Biosorption of Iron (II) from Aqueous Solution on Live Biomass of Aspergillus versicolor. NewBioWorld A Journal of Alumni Association of Biotechnology, 1(1): 13-15.

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NewBioWorld A Journal of Alumni Association of Biotechnology (2019) 1(1):13-15

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Biosorption of Iron (II) from Aqueous Solution on Live Biomass of Aspergillus versicolor

Tikendra Kumar Verma, K. L. Tiwari and S. K. Jadhav*

S.o.S. in Biotechnology, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur (C.G.) 492010, India.

*Email- jadhav9862@gmail.com


ARTICLE INFORMATION

 

ABSTRACT

Article history:

Received

21 August 2017

Received in revised form

2 August 2018

Accepted

6 November 2018

 

The development of novel biosorbent is a challenge in the age of biotechnology. Biosorbent has a higher capacity for the removal of heavy metal pollutants from industrial wastewater and is necessary as it is more efficient than traditional technologies. In this study, we have examined living biomass of Aspergillus versicolor for the removal of Fe(II) from aqueous solution and found its maximum biosorption capacity of Fe(II) was 4.44 mg/g. This biosorption process was also tested under different conditions such as contact time, pH, temperature and initial metal ion concentration in batch setup. The optimum rate of biosorption was found after 8th days of contact time at pH 5.0 and 30˚C of temperature. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm model was successfully applied for the Fe(II) biosorption data and their value of correlation coefficients (R2) were obtained as 0.971 and 0.981, respectively, thus both isotherm models were best fitted on the equilibrium data.

Keywords:

Biosorption

Aspergillus versicolor

Iron

Isotherm model

 


Introduction

In present scenario, environmental pollution has become a serious issue. The technological activities of human being, rapid utilization of minerals and industrial processing such as mining, metal surface treating etc are causing environmental pollution, which affects both flora and fauna. High levels of toxic metals or substances are directly or indirectly threatening to human life. The presence of high amount of iron in natural water resources are usually due to the disposal of effluent from steel and iron related industries, the outflow of acidic water from metal mines, weathering of rocks and minerals, leachates from the landfill. Like, other heavy metal pollution, toxic amounts of iron present in water body cause iron pollution. In the USA on Ohio River stretch, iron dominated mine discharges affected the freshwater mussels, some of which are threatened or endangered (Milam and Farris 1998). Chhattisgarh, particularly Raipur, Bilaspur, Raigarh and Korba are the steel hubs of the India. The country has its Asia’s biggest steel plant (Bhilai Steel Plant) located in the Bhilai region of Chhattisgarh, which is near to Raipur. Nowadays, the capital city of this state Raipur is considered as the heart of steel and the biggest market place for steel in India. Siltara and Urla are two very important industrial sectors of Raipur city. Among 25 small, 17 medium and 9 large sponge iron plant of Raipur, there are 33 and 11 sponge iron plants in Siltara and Urla, respectively (CSE 2011).

Iron is one of the heavy metal, which is widely used in electroplating industries, steel and ferroalloy units etc. At low concentration, iron is an important nutrient for algae and another aquatic organism in fresh water, but at a higher concentration it is lethal for aquatic organism and has considered as problem since long (Vuori 1995). High concentration of iron in tissue has also been associated with the pathological conditions, including certain type of cancer, liver and heart disease, diabetes, hormonal and immunological abnormalities (Fraga and Oteiza 2002). Various disorders due to iron overload are directly linked to the iron’s toxicity. The toxic nature of these pollutants is of serious concern and its remedial measure from industrial effluents is of prime concern (Kareem et al. 2014).

Biosorption is one of the methods to rectify these problems. It is defined by Volesky (2007) as “the property of certain biomolecules or type of biomass to bind and concentrate selected ions or other molecules from aqueous solution”. According to Wang and Chen (2009), various types of a biological system like bacteria, yeast, algae and fungi etc. are already investigated to remove heavy metals from aqueous solutions.

The present investigation was aimed to examine the living biomass of Aspergillus versicolor for the iron biosorption. Different experimental conditions such as contact time, pH, temperature and initial metal ion concentration were also studied to know the effects on the biosorption capacity of the living biomass of A. versicolor. The uptake capacity was also examined using the isotherm model for characterization.

Materials and method

Collection of microorganism

The fungal strain A. versicolor was isolated by serial dilution method from the industrial wastewater of Urla industrial area, Raipur, Chhattisgarh. The fungal strain was identified on the basis of morphological and its microscopic features (Nagamani et al. 2006). The fungal culture was regularly maintained on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) medium.

Biomass Preparation

The fungal strain A. versicolor was propagated on in Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) at pH 5.5-6.0 and after 3-4 days of fungal growth, the fungal spore suspension about 100 µL of 10-1 fold dilution was transferred into the experimental setup. The pH was adjusted using 0.1N HCl and 0.1N NaOH solution. The batch biosorption experiment was carried out into a series of 150 mL of Erlenmeyer’s flask containing 50 mL of PDB supplemented with 5 mg/L Fe(II), approximately (Verma et al. 2017). In the medium, Fe(NH4)2SO4.6H2O (ferrous ammonium sulfate) salt was used as Fe(II) supplement and the experimental setup was incubated on 100 rpm rotary shaker at 26±1˚C for 9 days after inoculation along with control medium having no fungal presence.

Biosorption experiment

The batch biosorption experiments were performed under different parameters. A series of experiments were conducted to determine the effects of contact time (1st day to 9th day), pH (3.0 to 9.0), temperature (20˚C to 40˚C) and initial metal ion concentration (5 to 50 mg/L). At the end of each experiment, the live fungal mass was removed by filtration and the filtrate was analyzed for remaining iron concentration in the medium. An Iron test kit was used to determine the iron concentration (test range 0.005-5.00 mg/L) developed by Merck (Germany). The absorbance level of the solution was measured using Photometer (Spectroquant NOVA 60 developed by Merck, Germany). The experimental works performed thoroughly in triplicates and mean values were used in the analysis of data.

The assessment of the percent (%) removal of metal ion (Olusola and Aransiola, 2015) was done using the equation below:

Where, Ci = initial metal ion concentration, mg/L; Cf = final metal ion concentration, mg/L.

Adsorption isotherm

Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were used for the analysis of data, which was obtained from the biosorption of Fe(II). Langmuir’s isotherm model explains the assumption by the formation of a monolayer on adsorbent surface containing a fixed number of metal binding sites (Langmuir 1918), which is written as:

where, qe is the amount adsorbed per unit of weight of biosorbent (mg/g); Ce is the equilibrium concentration (mg/L); qmax is the maximum amount adsorbed at equilibrium and KL is a Langmuir constant isotherm (Lmg-1).

The Freundlich equation (Freundlich 1906) proposes an empirical adsorption model which describes the sorption characteristics of the heterogeneous surface and the following equation represents the Freundlich isotherms:

where, KF (mg/g) and n are constants and indicator of the biosorption capacity and biosorption intensity, respectively; Ce is the equilibrium concentration (mg/L); qe is the amount adsorbed (mg/g).

Results and Discussion

Effect of contact time

The percentage removal of Fe(II) by living biomass of A. versicolor was rapidly increased for the period of 1st to 8th day (3.67% to 74.13%) of the contact time. After the 8th day, the percentage removal of biosorption remained nearly constant (Fig. 1). Similar work was reported by Verma et al. (2017) for Fe(II) using live biomass of A. flavus. Shivakumar et al. (2014) suggested that increasing contact time caused higher accumulation of heavy metal and after the growth period it remained constant.

Figure 1: Effect of contact time on biosorption of Fe(II) by live biomass of A. versicolor

Effect of pH

The pH is the most important factor for metal sequestration. It influences the metal ion speciation and its biosorption availability (Kareem et al. 2014). The optimum percentage removal of Fe(II) was 90.20% at pH 5.0 (Fig. 2). Similar observation was reported by (Ngah et al. 2005) for adsorption of Fe(II) on chitosan and cross-linked chitosan beads at pH 5.0. Shivakumar et al. (2014) were observed the maximum removal of heavy metal by A. niger and A. flavus in the pH range 5.0-6.0.

Figure 2: Effect of pH on biosorption of Fe(II) by live biomass of A. versicolor

Effect of temperature

Optimum Fe(II) uptake was observed at a temperature of 30˚C with percentage removal was 92.51% (Fig. 3). This result showed positive agreement with the previous findings of Shivakumar et al. (2014) for heavy metal removal by A. niger and A. flavus at 25-30˚C and Verma et al. (2017) for Fe(II) removal by A. flavus at 30-35˚C.

Figure 3: Effect of temperature on biosorption of Fe (II) by live biomass of A. versicolor

Effect of initial metal ion concentration

When initial concentration of Fe(II) was increased from 5 to 50 mg/L, the metal removal percentage was also decreased from 92.00% to 59.22%, respectively (Fig. 4). Similar results reported by Verma et al. (2013) for Cu(II) biosorption using free and immobilized biomass of Penicillium citrinum and Moghadam et al. (2013) for Fe(II) biosorption using pomegranate peel carbon. Fomina and Gadd (2014) suggested that the availability of binding sites for metal ion on biosorbent surface relatively decreased with increasing initial metal ion concentration, which caused reduction in biosorption capacity.

Figure 4: Effect of initial metal ion concentration on biosorption of Fe(II) by live biomass of A. versicolor

Isotherms analysis

The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption model were used to fit the data on it, which was obtained from the biosorption of Fe(II) at different metal ion concentrations (5 to 50 mg/L). The values of correlation coefficients (R2 ≥ 0.96) and corresponding constants (KL, KF and n) for each model are shown in Table 1. The experimental data results indicated that the biosorption of Fe(II) onto the live biomass of A. versicolor best fitted in both isotherm models (Fig. 5).

Table 1: Isotherm parameters associated with Fe(II) biosorption by live biomass of A. versicolor

Langmuir isotherm model

Freundlich isotherm model

qmax(mg/g)

KL(L/mg)

R2

KF(mg/g)

n

R2

4.44

0.710

0.971

1.537

0.415

0.981

 

Langmuir isotherms

 Freundlich isotherms

Figure 5: Langmuir isotherm and Freundlich isotherm plots for Fe(II) biosorption on living biomass of A. versicolor

Conclusion

In this study, the results showed that the Fe(II) biosorption using living biomass of A. versicolor was highly dependent on experimental factors such as contact time, pH, temperature and metal ion concentration. The maximum biosorption capacity of Fe(II) of live biomass of A. versicolor was 4.44 mg/g. The equilibrium data was well fitted with both isotherm model (Langmuir and Freundlich) for the mathematical description of biosorption of Fe(II). The maximum biosorption capacity of Fe(II) of live biomass of A. versicolor was 4.44 mg/g. Thus, the present study provides the insights of potential of fungi for metal biosorption and it can be use for the removal of metal ion from the wastewater.

Conflict of interest

Authors had no conflict of interest.

Acknowledgement

The authors are thankful to Department of Science & Technology, New Delhi for granted the funds in the form of DST-FIST (Sl. No. 270 for tenure of 2013-18) and also thankful to  PRSU Raipur, for financial support to the author in the form of University Research Fellowship.

References

CSE (2011) Sponge Iron Industry: The regulatory challenge. Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi, India, p 1-74.

Fomina M, Gadd GM (2014) Biosorption: current perspectives on concept, definition and application. Bioresource Technology, 160:3–14.

Fraga CG, Oteiza PI (2002) Iron toxicity and antioxidant nutrients. Toxicology, 180:23–32.

Freundlich H (1906) Over the adsorption in solution. Journal of Physical Chemistry, 57:385-470.

Kareem SO, Adeogun AI, Omeike, SO (2014) Biosorption studies for the removal of ferrous ion from aqueous solution by Aspergillus terreus and Trichoderma viride : kinetic, thermodynamic and isothermal parameters. Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology, 63:66-75.

Langmuir I (1918) The adsorption of gases on plane surfaces of glass, mica and platinum. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 40(9):1361-1403.

Milam CD,Farris JL (1998) Risk identification associated with iron-dominated mine discharges and their effect upon freshwater bivalves. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 17:1611–1619.

Moghadam MR, Nasirizadeh N, Dashti Z, Babanezhad E (2013) Removal of Fe(II) from aqueous solution using pomegranate peel carbon: equilibrium and kinetic studies. International Journal of Industrial Chemistry, 4:1-6.

Nagamani A, Kunwar IK, Manoharachary C (2006) Hand book of soil fungi. I. K. International Private limited New Delhi, India.

Ngah, WSW, Ghani, SA, Kamari, A (2005) Adsorption behaviour of Fe(II) and Fe(III) ions in aqueous solution on chitosan and cross-linked chitosan beads. Bioresource Technology, 96(4):443–450.

Olusola BO, Aransiola MN (2015) Biosorption of Zinc (Zn2+) and Iron (Fe2+) from Wastewater Using Botrydium Granulatum and Euglena Texta. Bioscience and Bioengineering, 1:17–21.

Shivakumar C, Thippeswamy B, Krishnappa M (2014) Optimization of heavy metals bioaccumulation in Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. International Journal of Environmental Biology, 4:188–195.

Verma A, Shalu, Singh A, Bishnoi NR, Gupta A (2013) Biosorption of Cu (II) using free and immobilized biomass of Penicillium citrinum. Ecological Engineering, 61(1):486–490.

Verma TK, Tiwari KL, Jadhav SK (2017) Removal of Fe(II) using Aspergillus flavus from aqueous solution. Indian Journal Scientific Research, 13(2):63-67.

Volesky B (2007) Biosorption and me. Water Research, 41:4017–4029.

Vuori K (1995) Direct and indirect effects of iron on river ecosystems. Annales Zoologici Fennici, 32:317–329.

Wang J, Chen C (2009) Biosorbents for heavy metals removal and their future. Biotechnology Advances, 27:195–226.

 

 



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