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Author(s): Krishna Kumar Verma1, Shristi Soni2, Pratiksha Pandey3, Varsha Sahu4, Sumit Kumar Dubey5, Neha Behar*6

Email(s): 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6neha1_biotech@yahoo.com

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    1Department of Microbiology, D.L.S. P.G. College, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India
    2Department of Microbiology, D.L.S. P.G. College, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India
    3Department of Microbiology, D.L.S. P.G. College, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India
    4Department of Microbiology, D.L.S. P.G. College, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India
    5Department of Biotechnology, D.L.S. P.G. College, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India
    6Department of Biotechnology, D.L.S. P.G. College, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India
    *Corresponding Author Email- neha1_biotech@yahoo.com

Published In:   Volume - 5,      Issue - 1,     Year - 2023


Cite this article:
Krishna Kumar Verma, Shristi Soni, Pratiksha Pandey, Varsha Sahu, Sumit Kumar Dubey, Neha Behar (2023) Comparative Evaluation of In Vitro Antimicrobial Efficacy of different Species of Curcuma against Human Pathogenic Bacteria. NewBioWorld A Journal of Alumni Association of Biotechnology,5(1):20-23.

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 NewBioWorld A Journal of Alumni Association of Biotechnology (2023) 5(1):20-23            

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Comparative Evaluation of In Vitro Antimicrobial Efficacy of different Species of Curcuma against Human Pathogenic Bacteria

 

Krishna Kumar Verma1, Shristi  Soni1, Pratiksha Pandey1, Varsha Sahu1, Sumit Kumar Dubey2, Neha Behar2*

 

1Department of Microbiology, D.L.S. P.G. College, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India

2 Department of Biotechnology, D.L.S. P.G. College, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, India

*Corresponding Author Email- neha1_biotech@yahoo.com 

ARTICLE INFORMATION

 

ABSTRACT

Article history:

Received

27 April 2023

Received in revised form

23 May 2023

Accepted

28 May 2023

Keywords:

Antimicrobial;

Extract;

Curcuma;

Human pathogenic; bacteria;

Disk-diffusion method;

Herbal

 

Herbal medicines have been commonly used for the treatment and prevention of disease, health promotion and for the enhancement of the life span. The Curcuma species viz., C. Roxb., C. longa Linn and C. amada are used as medicine in traditional therapeutic practices. The remedy for various diseases including cough, diabetes and hepatic disorders. The efficiency of turmeric fractions, such as petroleum ether, chloroform, benzene, methanol and aqueous were evaluated for their inhibitory effect on clinical and standard strains of pathogenic bacteria. The methanolic fraction of Curcuma longa rhizome had high potential to inhibit some pathogenic bacteria i.e. S. aureus to a greater degree than other fractions of Curcuma longa. In our study the results show that the different fractions (petroleum ether, methanol etc.) of Curcuma caesia rhizome were more effective antimicrobial agents than the crude extract of Curcuma longa. The bacteria isolates include E. coli (MTCC 443), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 424), and Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC96) Antimicrobial activities were estimated by Disc diffusion method. The results were pointed as the methanol, acetone and petroleum ether, extract was more effective on all three pathogenic bacteria.

 


Introduction

Medicinal plants represents an excellent source of antimicrobial agents since ancient times (Verma et al. 2018). In rural areas many plant materials are used as traditional medicine due to ample availability and are relatively cheaper than modern medicine (Harit et al. 2013). Plants generally produce many secondary metabolites (like phenol, alkaloid, terpenoids, glycosides, etc.) which have significant potential as microbicides, pesticides, fungicides, and many pharmaceutical drugs. Plant products are still in use in pharmaceutical preparations (Chattopadhyay et al. 2004).

DOI: 10.52228/NBW-JAAB.2023-5-1-4

 The members of the family Zingiberaceae are found to be rich source of phytochemical substances.  They are rich in curcuminoids and are recognized for their broad spectrum of biological activities, diversified chemical structures, physicochemical characteristics as well as functional properties (Kaur et al., 2018; Khan et al. 2022). Plants belonging to the Zingiberaceae family are used as a medicine in the traditional system because of their wide spectrum of biocidal activities (Khan et al. 2022). Many species of Curcuma are used in traditional medication systems. Many literature have claimed the antifungal, antibacterial, and inflammatory action of Curcuma longa, Curcuma caesia, Curcuma aromatica, and Curcuma amada (Naz et al. 2010; Luthra et al. 2001).  The rhizome of these plants has been reported for antimicrobial action since ancient times (Chopra et al. 1941).

The bacterial strains are significantly involved in damaging food stuff and causing a variety of diseases in humans. Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis are mainly responsible for post-operative wound infection, toxic shock syndrome, and food poisoning. Whereas, Gram-negative bacterium such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been associated with lung, urinary tract, and kidney infections, and Escherichia coli linked with dysentery (Negi et al. 1999). P. aeruginosa is the third most common cause of nosocomial infections with a high mortality rate and E. coli often causes urinary tract infections, sepsis, and meningitis. Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterial human pathogen that causes a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Infections are common both in community-acquired as well as hospital-acquired settings and treatment remains challenging to manage due to the emergence of multi-drug resistant strains such as MRSA (Methicillin-Resistant S. aureus). S. aureus is found in the environment and is also found in normal human flora, located on the skin and mucous membranes (most often the nasal area) of most healthy individuals. S. aureus does not normally cause infection on healthy skin; however, if it is allowed to enter the bloodstream or internal tissues, these bacteria may cause a variety of potentially serious infections. Transmission is typically from direct contact. However, some infections involve other transmission methods. The multiple virulence factors, high survival rate, wide environmental spread, and antibiotic resistance have made these organisms a potential pathogen, especially to immune-compromised individuals.

The different studies conducted by Singh et al., (2015), Prasad et al., (2016), and Sharma et al., (2017) have evaluated the antimicrobial activity of Curcuma rhizome extract against various pathogenic bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Their research outcome revealed that the different fractions of Curcuma rhizome, such as petroleum ether, chloroform, benzene, methanol, and aqueous fraction, were noted as an effective antimicrobial agent additionally, they quoted that the methanolic fraction of Curcuma rhizome has been shown higher potential to inhibit pathogenic bacteria.

The present work aimed to analyze the antimicrobial effect of different Curcuma (e.g., Curcuma longa, Curcuma caesia, and Curcuma amada) extracts against human pathogenic bacterial strains. The findings could be able to support further characterization of Curcuma as a potent antimicrobial agent to enrich the blend of traditional and modern medicines.

Materials and Methods

Fresh rhizome of Curcuma longa (turmeric), Curcuma caesia (Black turmeric), and Curcuma amada (Mango ginger) were collected from the herbal garden of D.L.S. P.G. College. The fresh rhizome of these plants was washed with distilled water to remove soil and other impurities, cut into small pieces of 0.25 inches, and shaded for 2 days. Further, the rhizome fragments were dried in a hot air oven at 50 °C for 24 h and were ground into powder and passed through a sieve (mesh size of 2 mm diameter) and collected the fine powder which further acted as a sample. The samples were stored at 40C for further use.

Preparation of Curcuma’s rhizome extracts: The acetone, ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol, petroleum ether, and distilled water extract of powdered samples were prepared using the cold extraction method. These extracts were then subjected to evaporation to concentrate and stored at 40C until used.

Assessment of antimicrobial activity of extracts: The disc diffusion method was used for the detection of the antimicrobial activity of different extracts. Bacterial cultures of E. coli (MTCC 443), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC 424), and Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC96) were used as test organisms for the assessment of antimicrobial activities.

The broth of test bacterial pathogens (at a density of 108 cells ml–1) was prepared and inoculated into the surface of nutrient agar plates separately. The discs of 2.0 mm were soaked into Curcuma’s rhizome extracts and placed on the surface of nutrient agar plates (pre-inoculated with test pathogens), and incubated for 24 h at 37°C (Harit et al. 2013).

 

 

 

 

 


Curcuma amada (Mango ginger)

Curcuma caesia (Black turmeric)

Curcuma longa (Turmeric)

      Fig. 1: Rhizome of C. longa, C. caesia, and C. amada

Fig. 2: Extracts of C. amada in different solvents.

Results and Discussion

The antibacterial activity of C. longa, C. caesia, and C. amada was  assessed against one Gram-positive (S. aureus) and two Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli and P. aeruginosa).

The acetone and distilled water extracts of C. caesia, have shown maximum antimicrobial activity against E. coli while ethanol and methanol extract of Curcuma amada have exhibited maximum antimicrobial action against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus respectively (Table 1). The ethanol and methanol extract of C. amada was effective only against gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus) whereas the rest extract including petroleum ether, acetone, and distilled water have not given antimicrobial activity. Kaur et al. (2018) evaluated the antimicrobial potency of C. amada and C. caesia against S. aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa and observed that the C. amada has stronger inhibition capability against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, and also mentioned that ethanol extract of C. caesia was found to be an effective antimicrobial agent.

Gupta et al. (2015) claimed that petroleum ether, benzene,         chloroform, methanol, and water extract of C. longa rhizome has been noted with higher activity against S. aureus between 9 mm, and also similar activity reported by Negi et al. (1999) while in our study petroleum ether extract of C. longa has higher activity against E. coli (7.0 mm) than S. aureus (5.5 mm). Adamczak, et al. (2020) documented that C. longa has significant antimicrobial action against 6 gram-positive and 9 gram-negative bacterial strains (with which S. aureus, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa are included). Our study showed that C. caesia and C. longa have noteworthy antimicrobial activity against E. coli, C. longa and C. amada have against P. aeruginosa.


Table 1: Antimicrobial Activity of Curcuma Species

Solvent

Antimicrobial Activity of Curcuma species (diameter in mm)

Escherichia coli

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Staphylococcus aureus

Curcuma longa

Curcuma caesia

Curcuma amada

Curcuma longa

Curcuma caesia

Curcuma amada

Curcuma longa

Curcuma caesia

Curcuma amada

 

Ethanol

5.0

7.0

-

6.5

-

7.4

4.5

2.2

5.5

 

Methanol

5.5

5.5

-

6.0

-

5.5

4

2.3

5.7

 

Petroleum ether

7.0

5.0

-

4.7

4.5

5.5

5.5

-

-

 

Acetone

2.0

7.5

-

2.5

3.5

5.5

-

2.5

-

 

Distilled water

5.5

7.5

-

4.5

4.5

5.5

-

3.5

-

 

 


Conclusion

The present investigation was focused on the different Curcuma genera including C. caesia, C. longa, and C. amada to evaluate their antibacterial potential. Different species of Curcuma were selected as although they belong to same genus but exhibits different biological and pharmacological attributes. These curcuma rhizomes have diverse antimicrobial agents that could further be applied for drug development studies. The phytochemical examinations of these curcuma rhizomes have revealed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, resins, glycosides, saponins, phytosterols, and diterpenoids contents. The polyphenols i.e., flavonoids and phenolic acids, have extensively responsible for antimicrobial potential. The literature revealed that Curcuma has around 0.40% flavonoid and 0.08% phenol content that participate in antimicrobial action. Our results indicated that ethanol extract of C. longa and C. amada exhibited maximum antibacterial efficacy against P. aeruginosa, whereas aqueous and acetone extracts of C. caesia displayed maximum activity against E. coli. The methanolic extract of C. amada and petroleum ether of C. longa unveiled maximum antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. The prevention and therapy of bacterial infections are presently of prime concern in the healthcare sector, and the inclusion of Curcumin in dietary will help to prevent pathogenic bacterial infection and purified Curcuma extract in pharmaceutical preparations.

Conflict of Interest

There is no conflict of interest.

Ethical Compliance Standard

There is no Ethical Compliance Standard.

Acknowledgment

The authors are thankful to D.L.S. P.G. College, Bilaspur for the well-equipped research facility.

References

Naz S, Jabeen S, Ilyas S, Manzoor F, Aslam F, Ali A (2010) Antibacterial activity of Curcuma longa varieties against different strains of bacteria. Pak J Bot, 42(1): 455-62.

Chattopadhyay I, Biswas K, Bandyopadhyay U, Banerjee RK (2004) Turmeric and curcumin: Biological actions and medicinal applications. Curr Sci, 87: 44-53.

Negi PS, Jayaprakasha GK, Jaganmohan L, RaoSakariah KK (1999) Antibacterial activity of turmeric oil: a byproduct from curcumin manufacture. J Agric Food Chem, 47: 4297-4300.

Harit J, Barapatre A, Prajapati M, Aadil KR, Senapati S (2013) Antimicrobial activity of rhizome of selected Curcuma variety. Int J Life Sci Biotechnol Pharma Res, 2(3): 183-189.

Verma RK, Kumari P, Maurya RK, Kumar V, Verma RB, Singh RK (2018) Medicinal properties of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.):A review. International Journal of Chemical Studies, 6(4):1354-1357.

Khan A, Jadon AS, Bhadauriya P (2022). Evaluation of Extractive Value and In-Vitro antimicrobial potential of Curcuma longa using disk diffusion method. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 12(6-S):30-35.

Onyancha W, Ali MIA (2019) Antibacterial activity of some plant extracts against selected bacterial strains causing human infection. SGVU Int J Env Sci Technol, 5(1):1-11. http://www.gyanvihar.org/journals/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Article-1-Wilda.pdf

Kaur R, Kaur B, Suttee A, Kalsi V (2018) Comparative assessment of in vitro antimicrobial activity of Curcuma caesia Roxb. and Curcuma amada Roxb. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 94-97.

Chopra RN, Gupta JC, Chopra GS (1941) Pharmacological action of the essential oil of
Curcuma longa. Indian J Med Res, 29:769-772.

Bhavani STN, Sreenivasa MV (1979) Effect of turmeric (Curcuma longa) fractions on the
growth of some intestinal and pathogenic bacteria in vitro.
Indian J Exp Biol, 17:1363-1366.

Luthra PM, Singh R, Chandra R (2001). Therapeutic uses of Curcuma longa (Turmeric).
Indian J Clin Biochem, 16:153-160.

Kaur R, Kaur B, Suttee A, Kalsi V (2018) Comparative Assessment of In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Curcuma Caesia Roxb. and Curcuma amada Roxb. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 11(14), 94. Innovare Academic Sciences Pvt Ltd. https://doi.org/10.22159/ajpcr.2018.v11s2.28591

Gupta A, Mahajan S, Sharma R (2015) Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of Curcuma longa rhizome extract against Staphylococcus aureus. Biotechnology Reports, 6:51–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.btre.2015.02.001.

Negi PS, Jayaprakasha GK, Jagan MRL, Sarariah KK (1999) Antibacterial activity of turmeric oil: a byproduct from curcumin manufacture. J Agric Food Chem, 47:4297–4300.

Adamczak A, Ożarowski M, Karpiński TM (2020) Curcumin, a Natural Antimicrobial Agent with Strain-Specific Activity. In Pharmaceuticals, 13(7): 153. https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13070153.

 

 

 

 

 



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