Journal of Alumni Association of Biotechnology (2022) 4(2):31-35
Efficiency of food waste as fuel source in Microbial Fuel
Cell: A review
Alka Kaushik1*, S.K. Jadhav2
of Botany, Fanikeshwar Nath Govt. College, Fingeshwar, Gariyaband,
Studies in Biotechnology, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur,
Author’s Email- firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
*Corresponding Author Email- firstname.lastname@example.org
05 October 2022
Received in revised form
18 November 2022
Solid microbial fuel cell;
This review article discussed about the food waste as a
source of bioelectrical energy. Every year the global energy demand
increases. While petroleum products currently supply much of this demand, the
increasing difficulty of sustained supply and the associated problems of
pollution and global warming creates unbalanced energy management and require
power sources that are able to sustain for longer periods. Renewable energy
generation and waste disposal are two key challenges for the sustainability
of future societies. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) as an alternative renewable
technology can run in solid phase and capture bioelectricity from food waste.
Food waste being readily available is found to be the potential source for
bioelectricity production by optimizing several important factors are
optimized, such as the type, number and quality of electrodes, type and
amount of substrate, microorganism community, system configuration, and
different parameters which increases the amount of electricity generated.
Solid microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) were reported to produce relatively small
amounts of energy compared with other substrates, but SMFCs are still
promising to achieve energy requirement of the future. So this review
demonstrates the works of different scientist who potentially produced
bioelectricity and looking further for improvements.
Energy demand is increasing day by day as the world population has grown,
owing to our dependency upon fossil fuels, such as petroleum, coal, and natural
gas, which is a non-renewable source of energy and also poses negative effect
on environment. Concerns about increased global energy demand, finite natural
resources and environmental issues, are thus intensifying the search for
sustainable alternative source of energy which is clean, renewable and
eco-friendly and is alternatives to fossil fuels and help to maintain the
sustainable growth of society (Venkata mohan et al. 2008). Renewable
energy includes energy from sunlight, rain, wind, hydropower and fuel
cells. They all are considered a new ways to resolve the current energy
requirement problem. Microbial fuel cells (MFC) are unique bio-electrochemical
catalyzed system which oxidizes biodegradable organic matter by utilizing
metabolic activity of fermentative bacteria as a catalyst and generates
electrical energy by transferring electron to electrodes under mild reaction
conditions (Venkata mohan et al. 2008). The future of energy sustainability and
supply is likely to rely on renewable energy sources. The generation of
bioelectricity by using newest type of novel technologies and renewable
eco-friendly fuel is an overall priority in terms of energy adequacy. Also, it
is a novel and practical technology with the ability to convert the organic
waste directly to bioelectricity. This advantage has attracted many scientists’
interest to develop and improve several MFC designs using different types of
substrate for the living biocatalysts. Among the substrates, a wide variety of
food wastes have been investigated to date.
report it was estimated that by 2050, World waste production would be
approximately 27 billion tonnes per year. Out of which, the one-third will come
from Asia, with major contributions from China and India (Kumar et al. 2017). A
total of 133760 tonnes of MSW was generated per day in India, out of which
approximately 91152 tonnes is collected and approximately 25884 tonnes is
treated (Kumar et al. 2017). It was reported that in 2025 about 0.7 kg waste
per person will be produced which is approximately four to six times higher
than the production of waste in 1999. The reason behind this increment is
associated with the size of communities which keep on increasing day by day
(Kumar et al. 2014). Approximately 170 000 tonnes waste were produced in urban
areas of India per day, which is equivalent to about 62 million tonnes per
year, and due to increase in population and changing life style this is
expected to increase by 5% per year (Kumar et al. 2017). In 2001 the Urban
India generated 31.6 million tonnes of waste and by 2017 it reaches upto 47.3
million tonnes. It was predicted to show a fivefold increase in four decades
with estimated generation of 161 million tonnes by 2041 (Kumar et al. 2017).
Due to urbanization and changes in life style it was found that one-third of
the food is wasted from various sectors like domestic and industrial sectors
(Kumar et al. 2022). Also, municipal waste contain large amount of food waste
from many different places like restaurants, hotels, household waste etc. these
solid waste were dumped and when composed with different conventional method
like incineration and landfills it causes air pollution along with water and
soil. To overcome this problem MFC provides an eco-friendly and sustainable
structure of Microbial Fuel Cell contains two compartments (Anodic and
Cathodic) connected to each other with a semi permeable membrane internally and
by an electric circuit from outside. Electrons and protons are generated in the
anodic compartment by microbes. External circuit arrangement helps in transfer
of electron to cathode compartment and to close the cycle, protons migrate
through a membrane (PEM) or agar salt bridge (Logan et al. 2006). In cathode compartment, electrons and protons are
combined to oxidize oxygen into water. Since microbes play a major role in the
transfer of electrons from substrate to the anode, selection of a
high-performing microbial culture (either pure or mixed) is of prime
importance. Micro-organisms e.g. Shewanella
putrefaciens (Kim et al.
1999) and Rhodoferax ferrireducens (Chaudhuri and Lovley 2003) along with
Anodophilic bacteria from the families of, Desulfuromonaceae,
Enterobacteriaceae, and Clostridiaceae are reported to produce
bioelectricity (Angenent et. al. 2004). In the anodic compartment, organic
matter is oxidized by microbial metabolism, which transfers the electrons to
the anode then the electron is transferred to the cathode side for the
reduction of oxygen or any other electron acceptor. In the cathodic compartment,
oxygen or other oxidized compounds are reduced in a neutral pH medium (Kim et
al. 2007).Using more effective catholytes than oxygen, such as ferricyanide,
can substantially increase power output. The high internal resistance in MFCs
still limits the maximum power density produced during operation (Logan and
Regan 2006). This technology is a emerging field of science in which various
types of MFC have been compared in terms of various parameters.
Currently, bioelectricity can be produced from
many compounds, such as pure chemicals, nuclear, fruit and vegetable wastage,
solar, wind energy and even from wastewater (Logan and Regan 2006). In our
energy-based society, the values of any energy-rich materials are increasing.
Characteristics and components of waste material are the factors that affect
its capacity and economic viability of converting organic waste into bioenergy
(Pant et al. 2010). The main thing which generally affects is concentration and
chemical composition of the substrates. Substrate plays an important role
because it provides carbon as nutrient and energy source. Various biodegradable
organic material such as waste water (dairy industry, pulp industry, paper
industry and polluted water from cities and house hold), cow dung, cow dung
manure etc can generate bioelectricity with the help of electrogenic bacteria
(Sukkasema et al. 2008).
In a study, Sathyamoorthy and Sushmitha (2022)
reported a highest power density of 21.36W/m3 with effluent mud and 14.01W/m3 with
food waste from actively working sewage treatment plant in a dual chambered
MFC. Rahman et al. (2021) has operated MFC with fruit extract of orange, banana
and mango. Among them orange product is able to give a highest voltage output
of 357mV. They also used glucose as fuel for as reference data at different
temperature and reported that MFC can be successfully operated between 28 °C
and 60 °C. Masud et al. (2021) worked on three different combination of
electrode material with food waste as fuel and observed the MFC for 10 hours.
They found that Copper-copper setup produces maximum of 0.9362 V. Tremouli et
al. (2021) reported a high COD removal of approx 85% when a MFC is operated in
a batch mode with extracts from fermentable household food waste (FORBI). Also
a maximum bioelectricity yield of 2.6 mJ/gCOD/L was recorded when they are
connected in series combination. Prasidha and Majid (2020) uses food waste
leachate as fuel for operating non-aerated and aerated double chamber microbial
fuel cells continuously for 30 days at open (OCV) and closed circuit (CCV)
conditions. For non-aerated MFC, 373 mV is produced at the 1st day
and for aerated MFC, the maximum OCV of 404 mV was produced at 7th
day. Florio et al. (2019) fed anodic
chamber with organic fraction of municipal waste in a single chamber set up and
was ran for 4 weeks and the maximum power density was found out to be 1.98 mW/m2 kg,
and a columbic efficiency ηC∼5%. pH of the slurry was maintained at 6.8 ± 0.9
along the experiment. Xin et al. (2018) used a cylinder-type air-cathode
single chamber MFC in order to treat food waste which was collected from a
university canteen. In his experiment COD removal of 90% with maximum power of
0.173 W/m2 was reported. Moharir and Tembhurka (2018) collected
kitchen waste from hostel mess of an educational institution and investigated
the effect of recirculation of anolyte on bioelectricity generation in a
two-chamber MFC. The maximum power generated was 29.23 mW/m2 while
COD removal was 66%. Wang and Lim (2017) made an air cathode MFC with food
waste leachate as fuel. They reported a voltage of about 270 mV with external
resistor. A good COD removal was also reported by them. Samudro et al. (2017)
reported a power density of 4 mW/m2 and COD removal efficiency
performance up to 70% were reached at days 11 and that is reached upto 87.67%
of COD removal and power density of approximately 4.71 mW/m2 by
using leaves litter, canteen and composite waste with not any maintenance of pH
al. (2016) used three MFCs with glucose, hydrolyzed potato peel and hydrolyzed
cyanobacterial biomass substrates which are mediatorless, without catalyst,
membraneless, with different carbon source, single chambered and operated in
batch mode. Among them hydrolyzed cyanobacterial biomass was found to be the
favorable substrate for electricity production with maximum power density of
16.46 mW/m2 at 62.48mA/m2. Chiu et al. (2016) reported a
higher maximal power density of 20.12 and 30.47 mW m-2 for 1.5
and 4 L, respectively with two-chamber microbial fuel cells through carbon felt
and carbon felt allocation. It was also observed that two chambered MFCs of 1.5
and 4 L had a higher maximal power density than single-chamber ones. Municipal
solid waste may generate a power density of 1817.88 mW m-2 when K3Fe(CN)6 is
used as an electron acceptor and alkali hydrolysis pre-treatment was done. Khudzari et al. (2016) uses carbon felt
as anodes and manganese dioxide as cathodes with 500 mL compost in MFCs.
The cMFC was operated up to 97 days at 20–23 °C. It shows a maximum
power density of 71.43 mW/m3 with more favorable condition (low
C/N ratio) for microbial growth. They also reported a important finding that
High-saline condition in MFCs generate low power, indicating that their level
of salinity (10 g/L of NaCl) inhibit the growth of bioelectrogenic
microorganisms. Moqsud et al. (2015) used kitchen and yard waste which was rice
plant included and he performed it in single chamber MFC with carbon fiber both
as anode and cathode and the maximum voltage generated was around 700 mV
when 1% compost mixed soil was used with a rice plant with and maximum power
density turned out to be 39.2 mW/m2 per anode specific surface area.
Wang et al. (2015) used Rice husks, soybean residue, coffee residue, and leaf
mold as substrate for MFC or SMFC (solid microbial fuel cell) in a single
chamber MFC with a proper carbon/nitrogen ratio and the moisture content
displayed for most significant result of SMFCs. A Maximum power density of 4.6
mW/m2 per anode specific surface area was recorded when the moisture
content is 60%, pH value of 6–8 and carbon/nitrogen ratio is 31.4 for a SMFC.
Moqsud et al. (2014) used Kitchen garbage and bamboo waste (glucose) as fuel
for single chamber setup and carbon fibre as electrodes. The voltage was recorded in every 20 min by
using a data-logger recorder for 45 days at room temperature. They inoculated
mixed anaerobic culture so the maximum power density obtained was 60 mW/m2 per
anode specific surface area. Moqsud et al. (2013) used Grass cuttings, leaf
mold, rice bran, oil cake, and chicken droppings in a dual chamber setup and
the maximum power density was 394 mW/m2 per cathode specific surface area.
Mansooriana et al. (2013) investigated bioelectricity generation from microbial
fuel cells while treating food processing wastewater. In this method, a
two-compartment MFC with aerobic cathode and anaerobic anode separated via a
proton exchange membrane was used. The maximum current density of 527 mA/m2
and power production of 230 mW/ m2 was measured. Khare and Bundela
(2013) reported a maximum voltage of 385 mV at day five through single chamber
MFC with waste water of biscuit factory mixed with
vermicompost. Lokeshwari et al. (2012) generated electricity from kitchen
garbage and analyzed rapid increase in voltage at a time and further decreased
due to reduction in enzyme activity. Tiwari et al. (2008) has reported the effect of nitrogen sources like paper
waste, dried and fresh leaves and fruit peels on production capacity of MFC.
They found that in the presence of nitrogen source, the bacterium produced an average of 0.5 V with 750 ml medium whereas
without nitrogen source the average electricity was 0.3 V which decreased with
each passing day.
in the form of bioelectricity from renewable and waste biomass through MFCs
have great development potential in terms of energy self-sufficiency. Nowadays,
Microbial Fuel Cell is a new innovative method, with an attractive,
cost-effective and renewable source of energy. The MFC methodology converts the
organic and inorganic substrate into bioelectric energy through an anaerobic
process. The effectiveness of the process depends on various aspects like
sources of waste (domestic or industrial, solid or liquid) as a foundation of
organic and inorganic substrate which are efficiently transformed into
electrical energy. Different methods and rules of MFC have been utilized to
improve the effectiveness of the MFC and diminish the boundaries in the MFC.
This review shows the maximum power generation from MFC with the use of food
waste which depends on various factors such as design, PH, anodes, cathode and
their surface area related to surface area of PEM and it also varies for
different microorganisms. Selection of microorganism and fuel is the key factor
to the generation of bioelectricity.
Conflict of Interest
authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.
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