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Author(s): Preeti Maravi*1, Shweta Nistala2



    1Department of Biotechnology, Bharti Vishwavidyalaya, Durg, Chhattisgarh, India
    2Department of Biotechnology, Bharti Vishwavidyalaya, Durg, Chhattisgarh, India
    *Corresponding Author Email-

Published In:   Volume - 3,      Issue - 2,     Year - 2021

Cite this article:
Preeti Maravi, Shweta Nistala (2021) Nano-bioremediation and its promising role in pesticide remediation. NewBioWorld A Journal of Alumni Association of Biotechnology, 3(2):22-25.

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 NewBioWorld A Journal of Alumni Association of Biotechnology (2021) 3(2):22-25            


Nano-bioremediation and its promising role in pesticide remediation


Preeti Maravi1*, Shweta Nistala1


1Department of Biotechnology, Bharti Vishwavidyalaya, Durg, Chhattisgarh, India

Author’s Email-,

*Corresponding Author Email-




Article history:


05 September 2021

Received in revised form

18 October 2021


28 October 2021


Biogenic nanoparticle; Bioreduction; Bioremediation; Pesticides


Nanoscience has gained broad attention of the scientific community worldwide due to their   inherent properties viz., surface area, mobility, high reactivity and their extensive applicability. However, bio-inspired synthesis of nanoparticles using different biological entities such as plants, fungi, algae, bacteria and yeast has emerged as rapidly developing research area. These biologically synthesized nanoparticles are being continuously employed in different application mostly in remediation of environmental contaminants and in biomedicine. Now a day, pesticide remediation by using nano-biotechnology is being widely used. Hence, this review has emphasized on the potential characteristics of nanoparticles, their types and advantages. It has also highlighted the different approaches for the green synthesis of nanoparticles and their application in pesticide remediation. This review will further shape the future of the use of biogenic nanoparticle as a safer measure in environmental clean-up.



Nanotechnology has attained remarkable attentiveness in recent years due to their physiochemical properties and their extensive usage in diverse fields such as environment, agriculture, and pharmacology (Saravanan et al. 2021). The Professor Richard Feynman gave the first concept of nanotechnology in his talk “There is plenty of room at the bottom” and the term nanotechnology was coined by Professor Norio Taniguchi (Kumari et al. 2019).

Nano-bioremediation is an important and emerging branch of nanotechnology as well as an economically feasible, environmental friendly and sustainable option for the treatment of contaminants (inorganic and organic pollutants, heavy metals, dye, pesticides) from the environment using green synthesized nanomaterials (Kapoor et al. 2021; Saravanan et al. 2021). Biological entities such as plants, bacteria, fungi and yeast used in the nanoparticle synthesis are referred to as “Bio-nanofactories”. These biological entities are composed of biomolecules and secrete proteins or enzymes that further leads to the reduction of metal ions, thereby leading to the nanoparticle production. The biogenic nanoparticles have some specific properties and can be utilized without any adverse effect in catalysis and degradation of pollutants as compared to the traditional methods (Kapoor et al. 2021).

DOI: 10.52228/NBW-JAAB.2021-3-2-6

Pesticides are widely used to protect crop plants from insects and microbial pests. On the basis of chemical composition, mode of action and targeted pests, pesticides are classified as organochlorine, organophosphates, carbamate and pyrethroids; as systemic and non-systemic; as insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, rodenticides, bactericides, etc., respectively (Zacharia, 2011). The excess and improper application of these synthetic chemicals is poisonous for the environment of the applied sites and for non-targeted organisms including humans and beneficial insects too. However, with the advent of nanotechnology, efficiency of remediation of environment polluted with different contaminants has increased drastically.

Characteristics of Nanoparticles

Nanoparticles are usually ultrafine particle matter whose size range varies from 1 to 100 nanometers (nm) (Khan et al. 2019). The different characteristic properties are listed in Fig. 1.

Fig. 1: Different characteristics of nanoparticle

Methods of Nanoparticle Biosynthesis

Biosynthesis of nanoparticles can follow either of the two main ways:

a)       Bottom-Up synthesis

b)      Top-Down synthesis

Top-down approach is a conventional approach in which a bulk material is sliced or cut down until it reaches the size of nanoparticles. The methods like grinding/milling, chemical etching, electro-explosion and laser ablation etc. are used in this top-down approach.  Whereas, bottom-up approach refers to a method of building up a nanoparticle atom by atom, molecule by molecule in order to achieve desired properties. This includes sedimentation and reduction techniques like spinning, template support synthesis, laser prolysis, biochemical synthesis, biological synthesis, etc., (Khan et al. 2019). The biological synthesis of nanoparticles can be achieved by biosorption method or bioreduction method. The biosorption method involves the binding of metal cations present in aqueous media to the cell wall of the organism. The interaction between metal and cell wall component leads to stable nanoparticle formation. The primary mechanisms for biosorption of metals onto microbial surface include physiosorption, ion exchange, precipitation and complexation (Saravanan et al. 2021). However, in bioreduction method, chemical reduction of metal ions to biologically stable form takes place with the utilization of microbes and their enzymes which are inert and can be cautiously removed from contaminated environment. Usually such bioreduction method occur in growth phase of microbial culture but some of them were reported in stationary phase too or can be produced extracellular by isolated microbial enzyme from growing culture.

Microbial Derived Nanoparticle

The microbes are the biological entities that follow more than one mechanism for production of nanoparticles. The biogenic synthesis of nanoparticles is one of the green methods employed for maintaining eco-friendly environment. For the biogenic nanomaterials synthesis, different biological agents are used and they react differently with different metal solutions through either intracellular process or extracellular process (Fariq et al. 2017). The extracellular process is comparatively more popular than its intracellular counterpart due to its low cost and least required downstream processing (Mishra et al. 2014). One of the advantages of using the biologically synthesized metallic nanoparticles over their chemical synthesis is that they are more stable at room temperature for long duration (Balakrishnan et al. 2017).  In connection to it, the various parameters like characteristics and application of nanoparticles was analysed by Saravanan et al. (2021).  They found that lack of mono-dispersity and prolonged duration in synthesis is few of the limitations of biological synthesis process which can be overcome by optimizing the reaction parameters, explicating the diverse microbial range and improving the stability of the nanoparticles.

Kapoor et al. (2021) reported various microbial factories for nanoparticle synthesis and their use in bioremediation techniques. In this study they focused on the mechanism and application of biogenic nanoparticles. Their study highlighted the use of advanced computational tools and green chemistry to exploit the “omics” derived data for better understanding of microbial processes. The list of different microbial species like bacteria, fungi, algae, actinomycetes, etc., and their route in synthesizing nanoparticle is given in Table 1.

Advantages of Biogenic Nanoparticles

Biogenic Nanoparticles are cheaper than nanoparticles synthesized using physico-chemical methods as they employ biomolecules as reducing agents, thus eliminating the requirement for expensive chemical reductants such as hydrazine. Although nanoparticles synthesized using chemical methods are large in quantity, but they produce toxic wastes that are harmful to the environment and human health. On the other hand biogenic mechanism does not produce such harmful toxic wastes. Biogenic nanoparticles are superior alternative to physicochemical methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles in concern to human health, environmental impact as well as cost (Fig. 2) (Kumari et al. 2019).

Fig. 2: Advantages of Nanoparticle



Table 1: List of Microbial Derived Nanoparticles

S. No.



Types of nanoparticle


Techniques used



Mahanty et al.

Iron oxide

Aspergillus tubingensis

Green method



Mahanty et al.

Iron oxide

Penicillium pimiteouiense

Green method



Noman et al.


Escherichia sp.

Green method



Wang et al.


Klebsiella oxytoca GS-4_08

Green method



Kulkarni et al.

Gold silver

Psudoalteromonas lipolytica

Green method



Nordmeier et al.


Clostridium pasteurianum BC1

Green method



Bhargava et al.


Cladosporium oxysporum AJP03

Green method

Application of Nanoparticles for Pesticide Remediation

During remediation of pesticide in soil or water, toxicity assessment is needed to directly assess the potential hazard of both original pollutants and its metabolites. In order to overcome the food starvation of increasing global population traditional farming methods are altered. Modern agricultural practices include the usage of several herbicides, pesticides, weedicides and chemical fertilizers. It resulted in increasing dependence on agrochemicals. Although it made the crops free from insects and pests, but resulted in ecosystem imbalance (Khan and Pathak 2020).

The widespread and inefficient use of pesticides exceeds the soil’s self remediation capability and causes soil pollution. Hence, an eco-friendly approach is needed to overcome the ill effects of accumulated pesticide residues in environment. Bioremediation is one such alternative treatment and various bioremediation techniques are continuously been used up for environmental cleanup. However, combination of bioremediation and nanotechnology is emerging as a new approach and will give better remediation efficiency as compared to other treatments. This nano-bioremediation is being used for treatment of different pesticides. In one of the study by Zubaidi et al. (2021), 40% remediation efficiency of Chlorpyriphos pesticide after 7 days nanoparticle treatment was observed. The degradation of organophosphorus pesticide using biogenic zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles.  In their research work nanoparticles were synthesized by green method and characterized using UV-Visible spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscope, Fourier Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction in order to know their optical, morphological and physical properties. Zinc nitrate hexahydrate was used as a precursor in green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles. ZnO assisted degradation assessment in soil amended with 0.1% of chlorpyrifos was analysed using UV-VIS spectroscopy. And on the eighth day of incubation, about 82.46% degradation was observed. Similarly the elimination of diazinon and butachlor from aqueous solution using Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and ZnO nano-photocatalysts was observed and assessed by Nozhat et al. (2018). They conducted their study under UV radiation and the effects of different parameters such as pH (3-11), adsorbent quantity (2-4 g L-1), contact time (0-60 min), the initial concentration of pesticides (1-100 ppm), and the luminescence of (6 and 18 watts) were investigated on the removal efficiency. The results unveiled that the photocatalytic process of ZnO nanoparticle had a higher efficiency in the degradation of butachlor. In contrast, the photocatalytic process of TiO2 nanoparticle had higher performance with the diazinon.

Conclusion and future prospects

The recent research effort in the area of biologically synthesized nanoparticles and their application in remediation or degradation of pesticides have been discussed in this review. The use of bio resources such as microbial enzymes and microbes in the nanoparticles synthesis is a sustainable approach which could lead to nearly zero emission of toxic chemicals. Pesticide remediation by employing different biosynthesized nanoparticles has been discussed and the results revealed it as an ecofriendly and economically viable alternatives to available chemical methods. However, further investigations in the depth of biosynthetic pathways of microorganisms for nanoparticle production are needed. Also, the need in employing genetic engineering techniques to further improvise the microbial species used as nanofactories may be adopted which can open new avenues in industrial and environmental sectors for production of products and remediation of environment.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.


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