NewBioWorld A Journal of Alumni Association of Biotechnology (2021) 3(2):8-12
Nutrients and Bioactive compounds of Pleurotus
Pingla Sen, Anjali
Kosre, Deepali, Nagendra Kumar Chandrawansi* and Shailesh Kumar Jadhav
Biotechnology, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur (C.G.) 492010, India.
Received in revised form
bioactive compounds such as phenol compounds, terpenes, steroids, polysaccharides
and vitamins etc. performing various biological activities can benefit the
is popularly cultivated edible mushrooms worldwide. It contains macronutrient
and micronutrient along with certain bioactive compounds hic are of medicinal
importance. The compounds isolated from mushroom are of great significance in
pharmaceutical, cosmetic, neutraceuticals as well as for therapeutics purpose
and prevention and treatment of diseases through their immunomodulatory
compounds, Macronutrients, Micronutrients, Mushroom
are the essential organisms for the recycling of organic waste and efficiently
return the nutrients to the environment. Mushrooms are macro-fungi which are
now-a-days more popular for remediation purpose because apart of bioremediation
it also provide mycelium or fruiting bodies as a protein source. They do not
contain chlorophyll and are non-green organisms (Ukwuru, 2018). The nutrient
content of the mushroom can be change based on different substrates on which
the mushroom is cultivated (Subramanian, 2014). These organisms have
diversified group which are belonging to basidiomycetes and ascomycetes that
can be edible and non-edible.
are saprophytic because their tissues contain no chlorophyll for carbohydrate
synthesis. Mushrooms consist of cap, gills stalk or stipe, spores, ring, vulvas
and mycelium.Pleurotus sp. is popularlycalled as oyster mushroom.
It is also known as ‘Dhingri’ in India. This genus includes about 40 species that are popularly known as to as
“oyster mushrooms”. According to Jayakumar and Thomas
(2011) oyster mushroom is
reported to consists of amino acids like other edible mushrooms, such Agaricus bisporus and Lentinus edodes . pleurotus species
generally grown in natural habitat on waste rich in lignocelluloses (Mahalakshmi,
Oyster mushrooms are naturally
grown on decayed material and are famous for appropriate to its taste,
medicinal and nutritional aspects. It is a simple cultivation technique requires
not so skilled personnel and is cost effective. Cultivation of P. ostreatus is a best alternative for edible mushroom production as
compared to other species of mushrooms for unskilled farmers than other
mushrooms species (Mbassi et al., 2018).Mushroom cultivation technology can
play a significant role in the management of agro and organic wastes. These
wastes can be recycled into food products and help in defeating in malnutrition
problem in developing countries. Edible mushrooms contain high protein
contents, minerals, low fat and vitamins such as vit. B, D, K, A and C (Jawad
et al. 2013). Theoptimum
temperaturefor cultivation of this species (15-30
.Temperature varies from species to species (Mahalakshmi,
2019). Pleurotus mushroom has about
40 well-recognized species, out of which 25 species are commercially cultivated
all over the world. They are P. sapidus, P.
fossulatus, P. eryngii, P. ostreatus, P. djamor, P. opuntiae, P. cystidiosus, P. tuber-regium, P. australis, P. populinus, P. sajor-caju, P.
flabellatus, P. florida, P. columbines and P. membranaceus (Suman and Sharma, 2007). According to Ahmed (2009) Pleurotus
species efficiently degrading lignin agent and can grow on several
lignocellulosic materials. Consequently, mushroom cultivation technology is
very simple and low cost production technology, which gives consistent growth
with high biological efficiency. Pleurotus
species can grow well in fixed range oftemperature conditions; hence suitable for
cultivation all through the seasons in various regions of tropical countries.
bioconversion of agricultural residues into food has attracted the world
attention in recent years. The cultivation of edible mushrooms has a great
potential for the production of protein rich quality food and for recycling of
cellulosic agro-residues and other wastes and serves as the most proficient and
economically feasible technology for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic organic
waste materials to high quality food. They can easily grow on almost all types
of cellulosic residues such as banana leaves, dried paddy straws, cotton waste
and rice straws sawdust enriched with poultry droppings Jatropha and even
invasive weed species (Fahad, 2015). Poonkodi (2015) studied that naturally
growing mushrooms are mostly poisonous. They bear attractive colours and
contain terpenoid, 1, 4-dialdehyde group, which is very much essential for
organisms such as antibiotics, antifeedant activities, mutagenicity, and
cytotoxicity etc. But, edible mushrooms do not have such kind of attractive
colours. So, in comparison with natural mushrooms, artificially cultivated
mushrooms are good for consuming.
are economically important biotechnological products, and a good source of
protein, vitamins, minerals, and biotechnologically active substances (Liu, 2018). It having a delicacy and
palatable nature makes to be considered as vegetarian chicken. Besides their
excellent flavor mushrooms have attracted much attention due to their proven
healthy properties (Chiron and Michelot, 2005). This are abundant in protein
and vitamins and is low calorie food and thus are suggested for heart and
diabetic patients. They are rich in protein, as compared to cereals, fruits and
vegetables. In addition to protein (3.7%), they also contain carbohydrate
(2.4%), fat (0.4%), minerals (0.6%), and water (91%), on fresh weight basis. It
is also rich in vitamin B C, D, A and K, which are retained even after cooking.
Since mushrooms possess low caloric value, high protein, fiber content and high
K: Na ratio, they are ideally suited for diabetic and hypertension patients.
They are also reported to possess anticancer activities (Patil, 2010).
addition, most of the species also contains a variety of compounds that are
biologically active in nature showing such biolocical activities as
antioxidant, antidiabetic, anticancer etc. (Zhang, 2019). Various species of mushroom has been traditionally used for
medicinal purpose and treatment of diseases (Jayakumar, 2011).
nutrients content of Pleurotus ostreatus.
Nutrient Value (g)
Percentage of RDA
Several researches from all over the world
recommended that the Pleurotus
mushroom are high in nutritional content and various bioactive compounds such as
terpenoids, phenols, alkaloids, steroids and lectins with promising biological
effects (Krishnamoorthy and Sankaran 2014). P.
ostreatus has greater contents of iron, copper, potassium, phosphorus,
magnesium and zinc, and the stipes contains with sodium (Mbassi et al.
2018) (fig. 1). Mushrooms have
the ability to accumulate mineral elements from different cultivation
substrates. It is an excellent dietary food product (Kinge, 2016).
works with calcium to help build bones. We need the right amount of both
calcium and phosphorus for bone health 80% of phosphorus is associated with
calcium to form bones and teeth. Phosphorus also plays an important structural
role in nucleic acid and cell membranes and it’s involved in the body’s energy
production (Mbassiet al. 2018). Phosphorus was found the most abundants mineral
element in the cultivated mushroom (Victor and Olatomiwa, 2013) studied.
compinds of mushroom and its application.
is the third most abundant mineral in the body it helps the body regulate
fluid, send nerve signals and regulate muscle contractions. Roughly 98% of the
potassium in our body is found in our cells. Of this, 80% is found in our
muscle cells, while the other 20% can be found in our bones, liver and red
blood cells. Potassium is found in most concentrated form various species of
edible mushrooms (Mbassi et al. 2018)
harvested from hardwood (A. leiocarpus) sawdust and softwood sawdust respectively. This study
demonstrated that potassium supplementation lowered systolic blood pressure an
average of 12 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure an average of mm Hg.
is very essential in muscle contraction, oocyte activation, building strong bones,
teeth, blood clotting, nerve impulse transmission, regulating heart and fluid
balance within cells (Pisteet al. 2015).
is both an electrolyte and mineral that helps maintain the balance of water in
and around our cells. It’s important for proper muscle and nerve function. It
also helps maintain stable blood pressure levels.P. ostreatus harvested from cupuacuexocarp supplemented with rice
bran. Normally sodium level should be between 135 and 145 mEq/L. Hyponatremia
occurs when our sodium level goes below135 mEq/L.
is the fourth most abundant mineral in the human body. About 60% of the
magnesium in body is found in bone, while the rest is in muscles, soft tissue
and fluids including blood. Magnesium was found least in this species. About
1.25mg /100g was obtained from the P.
ostreatus. harvested from hardwood sawdust while 1.04 mg/100g was obtained
1 Nutritive value of oyster mushroom (USDA National Nutrient data base)
3. Micro nutrient content of P. ostreatus
are known for excellent biological accumulators of minerals. Iron,
copper, zinc, manganese and selenium etc. falls under minor/trace elements.
Zinc was found in high amount in L. edodes species. Copper and manganese are found in low
concentration. As well as selenium is also present in mushroom and is known as
anticancer. Nickel, Lead and cadmium in mushroom is below detection levels. The
presence and allocation of some minerals cause toxicity in a variety of mushrooms. Mercury, cadmium and copper are accumulated
in fruiting bodies through its surrounding nature; levels of zinc and manganese
are comparable in the fruiting body and in the relevant substrate, while
concentrations of lead and iron are lower in the fruiting body than in the
other substrate (Mallikaarjuna, 2012).
compounds in P. ostreatus
P. ostreatusis most
cultivated after button mushroom for throughout world. On the basis of
nutrition, it is known as good low caloric food rich in protein, carbohydrates,
fiber, minerals etc. (Krishnamoorthy and Sankaran, 2014).
are rich source of proteins.Itis recognized as a potential source of new
proteins such as lectins, enzymes, proteases inhibitor and hydrophobins (Krishnamoorthy
and Sankaran, 2014). In mushrooms, protein content is dependent of substrate
nature. Victor and Olatomiwa (2013) reported that Pleurotus samples produced on Pycnanthusongoleubis,
sawdust in which the protein composition ranges between 20.03 to 20.11%.
Crude Fiber Content
are abundant in dietary fibers. According to Mbassiet al. (2018) reported that crude fiber
content depends on the cultivated substrate. Specifically, they obtained crude
fiber content from produced mushroom with cottonseed wastes in ranging of
18.50%, 17.51%, 12.79%, 10.66% and 9.59% respectively.
constitutesusually approx 50-60% of carbohydrate in dry matter form (Kalac 2012).
On the other hand, it isknown for a good source of carbohydrates. This are
mainly glycogen,chitin, cellulose, α- glucans/β-glucans and other
hemicelluloses like Xylans, mannansand galactans (Manzi, 2001 and Hossain,
2007). a specific β-glucan is also present and isolated from pleurotus species
called pleuran showing antitumor activity.. It is also knownforgood carbohydrates source and dietary fibers
(Krishnamoorthy and Sankaran, 2014). Victor and Olatomiwa (2013), they stated
that constitutive of the fungus, the carbohydrate content was higher at dry
weight basis in P. ostreatus, which
has grown on cupuacuexocarp, acacia seeds and pineapple skin. This
content is relatively lower in Pleurotus
grown on cotton waste (48.35%), on Pycnanthusongoleubis (45.75%) and on Ceibapentandra and Cananium sp. (41.87% and 44.56%) respectively.
Amino acid Composition
and Olatomiwa (2013) reported that amino acid composition of P. ostreatus cultivated on different
woody substrates. The amino acids found in abundant in pleurotus species
are arginine, glutamic acid, threonine, aspartic acid, leucine and alanine etc.
(Mbassi et al. 2018).
contain low fat and few essential fatty acids. Oleic acid and linoleic acid are
the monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid in P.
ostreatusrespectively at the higher concentrations (Hossain, 2007). The
lipid content in dried fruiting bodies of mushroom ranges from 0.2 to 8mg per
100 gram of powdered mushroom (Hossain, 2007). The lipid profile in nutritional
contributionis inadequatebecause oflow total lipid content of mushroom Kalac,
species are rich in vitamins, mainly vitamin B, C and D (Manzi, 2004).
According to Mattiala (2001) vitamin of group B are abundant in mushroom,
particularly riboflavin, thiamine, nicotinic acid, pyridoxine, folic acid, ergosterol,
phytoquinone, tocopherols and pyridoxine, etc. It also contains B group
of vitamin than other mushroom species.
value of mushroom
to their nutritional value, oyster mushrooms have been found to be medically
active in several therapies because they are rich in bioactive compounds that
contain a variety of secondary metabolites including phenol compounds,
polypeptides, terpenes and steroids. Various
biologically active compounds present in mushrooms shows antioxidants
properties. A different stage of formation of mushroom fruiting body consists
of a range of biologically active metabolites.
shows variousmedicinal functions such as antioxidant, liver protective, antidiabetic,
anticancer,antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antiallergic,
antimicrobial properties immunomodulating, cardiovascular protector, antiviral,
anticholesterolemic, antibacterial, antifungal, detoxification,hepatoprotective
effects, antitumor development and inflammatory processes etc. (Valverde, 2015;
Boonsong et al., 2016).
affecting nutrient concentrations in fruiting bodies
factors are there which affects the nutrient profile of mushroom depending upon
the type of substrate, sources of nitrogen and carbon nitrogen ratio as
composition is an important factor and directly affect the chemical structure
of cultivated mushroom (Oyetayo and Ariyo, 2013). Agro waste is generated abundantly
and it becomes an interesting substrate for the cultivation of mushroom, also environmental
problems related to management of can also be eradicated (Ahmed, 2013). Pleurotus
species of mushroom can be grown on a range of agro wastes like wheat straw
etc. (Hussain, 2002; Pant, 2006), pine needles, corn straw (Dias, 2003), cotton
wastes, (Rizki and Tamai, 2011), paddy
straw, weed plants (Das and Mukherjee, 2007), cardboard (Mandeel, 2005) banana
Sources of nitrogen
is essential element of nucleic acid, and protein (Miles and Chang, 1997). Nitrate
is a nitrogen source for mushrooms (Martinez, 2011), it is accumulated in
substrate composes an active enzyme system building hydroxylamine reductase,
nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase, which catalyze the metabolic reaction
of NO3 to NH2OH and then to glutamate (Bobics, 2015;
Economic importance of oyster mushroom
are economically important as it is primarily usedasfood for human consumption.
It has most of the minerals and trace elements required for the human
diet. The folic acid present in ituseful forcuration ofanaemia. Due to its
low sodium: potassium content, low starch, fat it has low calorific value.So, can
be used as proper diet for people with hyper-tension, obesity and diabetes. Whereas
high fibre content and ash allow them for the treatment in hyperacidity and
constipation. Pleurotin, a polycyclic compound aromatic in nature has been
isolated from the species. On the other hand, the organic wastes called
spent mushroom compost generated after the harvesting of mushroom can be
re-cycled and used as manure in agricultural practices asthis are ric in
nitrogen sources. It also used as animal feed, bio-gas production and the
slurry are used as manure which is economically profitable for agriculture
prospects and Conclusion
cultivation technology has tremendous scope. P. ostreatus a popularly known edible mushroom cultivated globally.
Mushrooms having excellent medicinal properties,
rich in protein, fibre, and amino acids. This is a 100 % vegetarian food and is
good for diabetes and joint pains. Pickles, pappad, soup powder, health powder,
capsule and health drinks etc. can be made using mushroom. It has no
cholesterol and helps in purifying blood. It has low sodium and substantial
vitamin and minerals. It can be concluded that P. ostreatus cultivated on the lignocellulosic substrates are rich
in essential nutrient such as high protein, carbohydrate, crude fiber, minerals
and low in fats. Pleurotus mushroom holds promising potential in
complementing the nutrient and minerals supply deficiencies prevention in a
developing country. It consist of various biologically active components allowing
for several therapeutic functions. Potential medicinal value is also high
including boosting the immune system, controlling blood lipids, antitumor
function and so on. In order to preserve the nutrients further, more complete
and effective storage methods and culinary treatments are necessary. As pleurotus
species are known for its exotic flavour and medicinal importance,
furthermore researches should have been conducted to explore the benefits of
mushroom and to seek the undiscovered species, which can provide abundant
resources for the research of edible mushrooms.
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