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Author(s): Arpita Srivastava1, Arunima Sur2, Kush Kumar Nayak3

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    1Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Chhattisgarh, Raipur (C.G.) India
    *Corresponding author Email-

Published In:   Volume - 3,      Issue - 1,     Year - 2021

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Arpita Srivastava, Arunima Sur and Kush Kumar Nayak (2021) Therapeutic and Safety aspects of Amrita (Tinospora cordifolia). NewBioWorld A Journal of Alumni Association of Biotechnology,3(1):8-10

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NewBioWorld A Journal of Alumni Association of Biotechnology (2021) 3(1):8-10


Therapeutic and Safety aspects of Amrita (Tinospora cordifolia)

Arpita Srivastava, Arunima Sur* and Kush Kumar Nayak

Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Chhattisgarh, Raipur (C.G.)




Article history:



Received in revised form





For beneficial value medicinal plants have been widely used for humankind. Nature is a source of curative resources for so many years as well as a surprizing total of recent drugs have been isolated from it. Outmoded drug is the utmost realistic as well as effortlessly convenient basis of treatment in the foremost healthcare body. Tinospora cordifolia is a broadly used shrub in traditional as well as Ayurvedic systems of medication throughout India. The plant consists numerous medicinal properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer activity etc. Tinospora cordifolia is a multipurpose reserve for all forms of life. The present review aims to throw light regarding the bioactive compounds and therapeutic facets of the Tinospora cordifolia.



Tinospora cordifolia, antioxidant, antimicrobial, bioactive compounds.



Since primeval period, the mankind has been contingent on the Mother Nature as well as the products for the provisions and the comfort in the life of people has been festooned by means of the prevailing existence of therapeutic plants. All the yields that are provided by the nature, the herbs of nourishing and beneficial properties are the trinkets furthermore apparent purpose, these medicinal plants are the depended source and is lengthily used. Medicinal plants comprises curative and beneficial properties consisting biologically vigorous components called as secondary metabolites which are found assimilated in the different plant parts like flowers, leaves, barks and seeds are found in form of exopolysaccharides, resins and gums (Kumar et al. 2017; Gurib–Fakim, 2006). India along with its mega-biodiversity and rich primordial old-style systems of medication viz Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, Amchi. Local wellbeing customs afford a strong base for the consumption many plants in shared healthcare and facilitation of common disorders of the individuals (Pandey et al. 2008). Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia demarcates medicines of herbal, mineral, metal also of animal source. Facts about these drugs can be drawn through conventional scripts of Ayurveda, well-known as Samhita (treaties), chikitsa grantha (compendia), Rasa grantha (pharmacopoeia), Nighantu (lexicons) and samgraha grantha, etc. Certain medicines are extremely admired for their extraordinary therapeutic values, array of versatile activities, easy obtainability and preparative procedures (Indian Biodiversity, 2020). Tinospora cordifolia is a well renowned therapeutic plant whose eminence in Ayurveda as well as natural remedy is of the uppermost order. Tinospora cordifolia is well known “Guduchi” in Sanskrit and “Amruthaballi” in Kannada. It’s an authoritative drug of the Indian Medicine preprations. It is an honoured herb whose usages with mention to welfares of mankind have been applauded to tremendous level in numerous ayurvedic and Vedic scriptures as well as practices (Jamal et al. 2007). In ayurvedic the climber herb Tinospora cordifolia, has numerous appreciated healing properties and is generally used in ayurvedic and local forms of medicine. The phytochemicals have been tested and is scientifically validated to some extent (Gaur et al. 2014). The current review targets to document the therapeutic properties of Tinospora cordifolia in addition with its probable projections regarding the advance scientific investigation for the improvement and development of effectual valuable compounds.


Botanical classification (Gaur et al. 2014)

Kingdom:               Plantae.

Division: Magnoliophyta.

Class:                      Magnoliopsida.

Order:                     Ranunculales.

Family:                    Menispermaceae.

Genus:                    Tinospora

Species:                  T. cordifolia.

Botanical description

T. cordifolia belonging to the Menispermaceae family is a deciduous plant comprising approximately 3–4 feet in stature as well consists around 1 feet in breadth. The leaves of are simple, dark bright green in colour and is heart shaped. It is substitute, entire having lamina broadly ovate which is 10-12 cm long and 8-15 cm wide showing multicoated reticulate vena­tion (Sharma and Kumar, 2013; Khosa and Prasad, 1971). The stem is gray or creamy white in colour, extremely cleft spirally and longitudinally, having the space amid spotted comprising huge rosette-like lenticels. Unisexual flowers, its small size and greenish yellow on auxiliary and terminal racemes are its character features. Fruits of T. cordifolia are orange–red in color, which comprising of 1-3 ovoid, even, and thick stalk precipitations with sub terminal style scars (Bharath Raj et al. 2020).


The herb is spread entirely in the sultry region of India up to 1,200 m overhead sea level from Kumaon to Assam, in north outspreading through West Bengal, Bihar, Deccan, Konkan, Karnataka and Kerala (Aiyer and Kolammal, 1963).

History and ayurvedic aspects

Tinospora cordifolia is recognized as Guduchi or Amrita which realities to the atmosphere of this plant in the stimulating as well as the retainment of adolescence and life duration of the user. As per Ayurvedic text such as; Ashtang Hridaya, Charak, Sushrut, Bhava Prakash and Dhanvantri Nighantu, T. cordifolia khowm as: Amritvalli, Vatsadani, Chinmarrhuha, Amara, and Chinnodebha etc. In context of Charak Samhita and Ashtang Hridaya, there is also an extreme validation for the treatment of diverse conditions like Jvara (fever) Kamala (jaundice) and Vat. In Rakta (gout) and Sushurta Samhita, under the Tikta-SakaVarga, it is conventionally claimed for the remedy of numerous maladies like Svasa (asthma), kustha (leprosy) and Maha Jvara (fever)  (Vagbhata et al. 2002). In Dhanvantri Nighantu has been portrayed for curing bleeding piles, itching, and erysipelas also encouraging durability. Guduchi has been dignified by European practitioners as a principal foundation of various medicines. Tinospora cordifolia is a foremost component of formula­tions in Ayurveda literatures which is utilized for the action of disorders urinary related diseases, debility and fever. Certain significant formulations which have been prepared from T. cordifolia are: Sanjivani vati, Guduchi taila Guduchyadi churna, Kanta-Kari avaleha Chyavnaprasha, Guduchi satva, Guduchu ghrita, Amrita guggulu, amritashtaka churna Brihat guduchi taila, etc (Aiyer et al. 1963; Khosa et al. 1971)


The diverse classes of constituents present in this plant are categorized in groups such as alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, polysaccharides, glycosides along with diverse perfumed and aliphatic compounds which happen in their photoactive form accountable for the wide diversity of corrective and therapeutic properties. The foremost component of T. cordifolia is berberine, furanolactone, tinosporone, tinosporic acid, giloin, gilenin, cordifolisides A to E, arabinogalactan polysaccharide, bergenin, gilosterol, tinosporol, picrotene, tinosporidine, sitosterol, cordifol, heptacosanol (Oliveira et al. 2012; Wang et al. 2010; Thippeswamy et al. 2008)

Medicinal properties

Antioxidant activity

Chi, S. et al., evaluated the antioxidant probable of various extract of Tinospora cordifolia. Significant activities were shown by ethyl acetate extract of stem and the methanolic extract of leaf part. It was discovered by DPPH that stem extract possessed less antioxidant activity as compared to leaf extract. Substantial protection was also provided by the leaf and stem extract towards plasmid DNA impairment radical induced protein oxidation. Antioxidant protective property is chiefly due to the occurrence of the phytocomponents such as polyphenols and tannins (Chi et al. 2016). Sivakumar et al., studied the results that the erythrocytes membrane lipid peroxide and catalase activity was well managed by methanol extracts of stem of Tinospora cordifolia which were orally augmented as well as reduced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase in induced diabetic rats (Sivakumar and Rajan 2010).

Anti-diabetic activity

Tinospora cordifolia stem part is effusively consumed to cure diabetes by observing blood glucose. Its anti-diabetic prospective has been specified by means of the relieving of oxidative stress, limiting gluconeogenesis, augmenting the insulin emancipation, as well as the monitoring of blood glucose (Mutalik et al. 2011). The crude extract of stem extracted from the solvents like ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, constrains the enzymes like amylase and glucosidase, resulting intensification in post-prandial glucose level as well as shows possible actions opposing to Diabetes mellitus disease (Chougale et al. 2009).

Antimicrobial activity

The extracts of Tinospora cordifolia extracts has been estimated for antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive pathogens including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogene, Serratia marcesenses, Klebsiella pneumoniae,  Shigella flexneri, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella typhi, (Narayanan et al. 2010). The study discovered that aqueous, ethanolic and acetone extract of stem and  leaves of guduchi possessed significant effects contrary to urinary pathogens while aqueous extract of stem and leaf exhibited poor inhibitory activity against all pathogens (Shanthi et al. 2013).

Anti-Cancer Activity

The extraction of alkaloid palmatine from Tinospora cordifolia discovered noteworthy anticancer potential by resources of response surface methodology in 7, 12-dimethylbenz anthracene DMBA induced skin cancer model in mice (Dixit S. 2013).

Immunomodulatory Activity

Tinospora cordifolia is also accredited for its immunomodulatory response. Vital components like 11-hydroxymustakone, Nformylannonain, cordifolioside A, magnoflorine, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, tinocordiside and syringin has been stated to possess potential immunomodulatory as well as cytotoxic effects (Sharma et al. 2012). Ahera and Wahib (2012) estimated the immunomodulatory activity of ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia.

Conclusion and future prospects

The literature study discloses that T. cordifolia has been extensively exposed in the vastness of biological activity of diverse extracts, portions as well as compounds with the quantification of some bioactive compounds. The feasible mechanisms of action in in vitro and in vivo models have also been revealed, preparations, in addition to constituents along with therapeutic and toxicological studies. The numerous isolated bioactive compounds of T. cordifolia support its utilization as an ingredient in herbal medications as well as preparations. The compounds comprise antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and immunomodulatory activity which can be substantially applied as valuable agents against such disorders either independently or in consolidation. The plentiful nature of T. cordifolia in subtropical Asian countries marks it a commercially low rate and effectual complementary herbal drug. The plant consists of secure and persuasive remedial value as a strength augmentation as well as a stock house for imminent growth of medicine in severe ailments where current medications comprise deficient therapeutic potential. The herb Tinospora cordifolia is worth for further assessment at molecular level which will be profitable for human kind.


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