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Author(s): Vijay Kumar Bhagat1, Manas Manohar Ujjaini2, Mudit Kumar Singh3

Email(s): 1kumarvijaybhagat1@gmail.com

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    State Forest Research and Training Institute Raipur, Near Vidhan Sabha, Baloda Bazar Road, Raipur (C.G.) 493 111, India.

Published In:   Volume - 1,      Issue - 2,     Year - 2019


Cite this article:
Vijay Kumar Bhagat, Manas Manohar Ujjaini and Mudit Kumar Singh (2019) Avifauna richness and abundance of Chhal Coal mining area under Dharamjaigarh Forest Division. NewBioWorld A Journal of Alumni Association of Biotechnology, 1(2):16-22.

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NewBioWorld A Journal of Alumni Association of Biotechnology (2019) 1(2):16-22             

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Avifauna richness and abundance of Chhal Coal mining area under Dharamjaigarh Forest Division

 

Vijay Kumar Bhagat1*, Manas Manohar Ujjaini1, Mudit Kumar Singh1*

State Forest Research and Training Institute Raipur, Near Vidhan Sabha, Baloda Bazar Road,                                     Raipur (C.G.) 493 111, India.

*Email-kumarvijaybhagat1@gmail.com


ARTICLE INFORMATION

ABSTRACT

Article history:

Received

16 January 2019

Received in revised form

12 March 2019

Accepted

3 April 2019

 

Opencast mining is one of the significant factors responsible for the destruction of natural habitats for many wildlife including birds. In the present time as the mining activities are increasing, the ecological niche of birds is being disrupted. So, this analysis was done to assess the effect of mining and associated activities on the diversity and distribution of birds. The study site disturbed by the coal mining activity and was very less suitable for avifauna. A total of 1653 individual of 106 bird species belonging to 49 families were recorded in study area. Seasonal surveys, the avifauna populations have been recorded which are as; Summer season survey, total 405 individuals of 61avifauna species; Winter season survey, total 776 individuals of 89 avifauna species; and in Autumn season survey, 472 individuals of 50 avifauna species were recorded. The result indicates the rich diversity and abundance of birds from observed seasonal variation of the study area. In conclusion, mining and its associated activities do affect the diversity and distribution of birds in OCP Chhal Dharamjaigarh Forest Division.

Keywords:

Abundance

Avifauna

Diversity

Mining

 


Introduction

Destruction of niche of avifauna is closely associated with mining and its harmful associated activities. With an increase in its demand with regards to commercial market and its role in the development of a nation its activity has also been continuously increased (Vishwakarma et al. 2018). Along with mining, major parts of forests and Avifauna habitats are being replaced by agriculture land, industries, roads-railways network, for human habitation, leading to the disruption of habitat and overall loss of biological diversity (Nikunj et al. 2013). This disturbance has resulted in an imbalance in ecological equilibrium. In India continuous human development and urbanization has changed most natural habitats and mining is one of them; birds are good indicators as they respond fast to threat and changing environmental conditions. Birds provide several ecological functions such as pest control, pollination, seed dispersal and plant reproduction in thousands of economically and culturally important plant species through its consumption of various terrestrial, aquatic and aerial resources (Whelan et al. 2018).

The bird population is an indication of environmental changes as they respond fast to threats and changing environment conditions (Barov, 2011). Indian birds, putting the number of species across the country are 1306. With that figure, India accounts for 12 percent of the total number of bird species in the world, amounting to 10,135 among the 1306 species. Taxonomically, the bird population in the country is divided into 26 orders, 111 families and 492 genera. Of these 72 species of birds are endemic to India, constituting about 5.5% of the country’s bird diversity (Praveen et al. 2018). Keeping safe the significant diversity of biotic community of this important region is therefore a high conservation priority, and detailed research is necessary to find out more precisely how habitat loss and change impacts biodiversity so that effective measures may be taken to slow these impacts. However, due to its isolation, less understanding of the ecological relations of avifaunal communities in this area remains poor (Martin and Blackburn, 2010).

Study Area

The study area is located within Raigarh District of Chhattisgarh state. The project is located south of village Chhal at an approximate distance of 2.5 km on Kharsia - Dharamjaigarh State Highway and 16 km from Kharsia town.

Figure 1: Showing location map of study area

The Block is bounded by latitude 22004’40” and 22006’27” and longitudes 83006’10” and 83009’10” and is included in the survey of India topological sheet no. 64 N/4 area of core boundary 185.155 hectare (EIA and EMP report). Study area divided into two parts in core and buffer. Study area surrounded by protected forest and revenue forest area in which Sal (Shorea robusta), Chhar (Buchanania lanzan) and Mahua (Madhuca indica) are dominant tree species.  

Materials and Methods

 

Major surveys for the estimation and counting of   avifauna were conducted between the month of May 2018 to March 2019 by using a transect line approach (Bibby et al. 1992) for extensive survey of whole mining area including core and buffer zones (Fig. 1); so as to assess the status of avifauna and to identify the habitats pattern used by the birds. For each line transect, three observers had walked along the path, and independently recorded the number of species and individual birds in the study area with the aid of binoculars. If possible, photographs had also taken to aid in the identification process. Total 26 line transect were taken up in study area. During the field surveys, we made a line transect of 1.20 km (mostly used a path/trail followed by the villagers to enter in the forest) in which distance sampling were taken in every 300 m in the transect to estimate the population of avifauna, its habit, habitat and nesting pattern including the floral diversity of the proposed mining area). A circular sample plot of 10 m radius had been taken in each transect at an interval of 300 m i.e. total 5 sample plots made in one transect in which vegetation composition (grass, herb, shrub and regeneration) and all tree species data had been taken including height and girth (using meter tape) along with the counting of avifauna. Birds were recorded from each transect line plotted in study site and prepared a checklist of availability of avifauna. Perch heights of individuals have also recorded to find out the utilization of vertical dimension by birds. Perch height class of all the birds has recorded in case of all direct sightings. All the birds were identified using the standard field guides (Grimmett et al. 2013).

 

Results and Discussion

Overall from three seasonal surveys, total numbers of 1653 individual species of avifauna were recorded from 106 different species belongs to 49 families. According to three seasonal surveys, the seasonal variations of avifauna populations have been recorded which are as; Summer season survey, total 405 individuals of 61 different avifauna species; Winter season survey, total 776 individuals of 89 different avifauna species; and in Autumn season survey, 472 individuals of 50 different avifauna species were recorded (Fig. 2).

Among all the three seasonal surveys, winter season surveys outputs highest populations of birds during the study. This study reveals that the most of the avifauna presence in the study site is in winter season. The aquatic avifauna species were observed and recorded during the winter season survey. Mostly, the birds found in the study were belongs to Columbidae and Anatidae family with 8 bird species each and Cuculidae and Muscicadidae family with 5 species each (Fig. 3).

Figure 2: Seasonal avifauna abundance in the study area

The avifaunal diversity population in the present study was found majorly the bird species of total 145 individuals of Indian Silver Bill, 98 of Purple Sunbird, 89 of Red Vented Bulbul and Jungle Babbler, 77 of Rose Ringed Parakeet and 77 of Green Bee-eater (Table 1 and Fig. 4).

Figure 3: Family wise checklist of Bird species

 


Table 1: Checklist of availability of avifauna in the OCP Chhal


S.N

Common Name

Local Name

Scientific Name

Family

              Total

Greater Spotted Eagle

---

Clanga clanga

Accipitridae

01

Shikra

Cheel

Accipiter badius

03

Blyth Reed Warbler

---

Acrocephalus dumetorum

Acrocephalidae

14

Sulphur-Bellied Warbler

---

Phylloscopus griseolus

10

Singing Bush Lark

---

Mirafra javanica

Alaudidae

07

Common Kingfisher

Kilkila

Alcedo atthis

Alcedinidae

04

White Throated Kingfisher

Kilkila

Halcyon smyrnensis

04

Bar Headed Goose

---

Anser indicus

Anatidae

08

Common Pochard

---

Aythya ferina

03

Common Teal

---

Anas crecca

06

Cotton Teal

---

Nettapus coromandelianus

06

Gadwall

---

Mareca strepera

07

Lesser Whistling  Duck

---

Dendrocygna javanica

06

Red Crested Pochard

---

Netta rufina

06

Spot Bill Duck

---

Anas poecilorhyncha

05

Little Swift

---

Apus affinis

Apodidae

09

Cattle Egret

Gay Bagula

Bubulcus ibis

Ardeidae

10

Indian Pond Heron

bakli

Ardeola grayii

23

Little Bittern

---

Ixobrychus minutus

07

Little Egret

Kokda

Egretta garzetta

20

Great Thick Knee

---

Esacus recurvirostris

Burhinidae

06

Long tailed Minivet

Pericrocotus ethologus

Campephagidae

01

Small Minivet

---

Pericrocotus cinnamomeus

08

Red Wattled Lapwing

---

Vanellus indicus

Charadriidae

10

Yellow Wattled lapwing

---

Vanellus malabaricus

08

Blue-Winged Leaf Bird

---

Chloropsis cochinchinensis

Chloropseidae

01

Jungle Prinia

---

Prinia sylvatica

Cistacolidae

03

Ashy Prinia  or ashy wren-warbler

---

Prinia socialis

20

Common Tailor Bird

---

Orthotomus sutorius

07

Plain Prinia

---

Prinia inornata

04

Eurasian Collared Dove

Padki

Streptopelia decaocto

Columbidae

20

European Turtle Dove

Padki

Streptopelia turtur

Feral Pigeon

Kabutar

Columba livia domestica

07

Indian Spotted Dove

Padki

Streptopelia chinensis

24

Laughing Dove

Padki

Spilopelia senegalensis

40

Oriental Turtle Dove

---

Streptopelia orientalis

05

Spotted Dave

---

Streptopelia chinensis

Yellow-Footed Green Pigeon

Kabootar

Treron phoenicoptera

02

Indian Roller

Nilkanth

Coracias benghalensis

Coraciidae

49

House Crow

Kauaa

Corvus splendens

Corvidae

02

Jungle Crow

Koua

Corvus culminatus

10

Rufous Tree Pie

---

Dendrocitta vagabunda

14

Asian Koel

Koel, Cuckoo

Eudynamys scolopacea

Cuculidae

06

Common Hawk Cuckoo

Cheel

Hierococcyx varius

02

Greater  Coucal

Koyal

Centropus sinensis

20

Indian Cuckoo

---

Cuculus micropterus

06

Sirkeer Malkoha

---

Taccocua leschenaultii

01

Thick Billed Flower Pecker

---

Dicaeum agile

Dicaeidae

06

Ashy Drongo

---

Dicrurus leucophaeus

01

Black Drongo

Karraua

Dicrurus macrocercus

Dicruridae

60

Indian Silver Bill

---

Euodice malabarica

Estrildidae

145

Red Avadavat

---

Amandava amandava

01

Scaly Breasted Munia

---

Lonchura punctulata

55

White-Rumped Munia

---

Lonchura striata

11

Indian Courser

---

Cursorius coromandelicus

Glareolidae

15

Barn Swallow

---

Hirundo rustica

Hirundinidae

15

Bronze-Winged Jacana

---

Metopidius indicus

Jacanidae

12

Brown Shrik

---

Lanius cristatus

Laniidae

02

Long Tailed Shrik

---

Lanius schach

03

Jungle Babbler

Satbhaiya

Argya striata

Leiothrichidae

89

Common Babbler

---

Argya caudata

26

Copper Smith Barbet

---

Psilopogon haemacephalus

Megalaimidae

08

Green Bee Eater

Patinga

Merops orientalis

Meropidae

69

Asian Paradise Flycatcher

---

Terpsiphone paradisi

Monarchidae

03

Paddy Field Pipit

---

Anthus rufulus

Motacillidae

08

Asian Brown Flycatcher

---

Muscicapa dauurica

Muscicapidae

01

Black Redstart

---

Phoenicurus ochruros

01

Indian Robin

Chirak

Saxicoloides fulicatus

38

Oriental Magpie Robin

---

Copsychus saularis

13

Verditer Flycatcher

---

Eumyias thalassinus

02

Crimson Backed sunbird or Small Sunbird

---

Leptocoma minima

Nectariniidae

01

Purple Sun Bird

---

Nectarania asiaticus

98

Black Headed Oriole

---

Oriolus larvatus

Oriolidae

03

Eurasian Golden Oriole

---

Oriolus oriolus

20

Indian Golden oriole

---

Oriolus kundoo

04

House Sparrow

Gouriaya

Passer domesticus

Passeridae

10

Greater Cormorant

---

Phalacrocorax carbo

Phalacrocoracidae

18

Little Cormorant

---

Microcarbo niger

38

Common quail

Titar

Coturnix coturnix

Phasianidae

06

Grey Francolin

---

Francolinus pondicerianus

05

Jungle Bush Quail

Titar

Perdicula asiatica

03

Rain Quail

Quail

Coturnix coromandelica

03

Greenish Warbler

---

Phylloscopus trochiloides

Phylloscopidae

16

Greater Flame Back  Woodpecker

Katpodva

Chrysocolaptes guttacristatus

Picidae

06

Indian Pygmy Woodpecker

---

Yungipicus nanus

01

Black-rumped Flame Back

---

Dinopium benghalense

02

Indian Pitta

---

Pitta brachyura

Pittidae

01

Baya Weaver

Gauraiya

Ploceus philippinus

Ploceidae

15

Alexandrine Parakeet

Parrot, Tota

Psittacula eupatria

Psittacidae

22

Plum Headed Parakeet

Tota/Sua

Psittacula cyanocephala

60

Rose Ringed  Parakeet

Tota/Sua

Psittacula krameri

Psittaculidae

77

Vernal Hanging Parrot

---

Loriculus vernalis

23

Red Vented Bulbul

Fikkadlow

Pycnonotus cafer

Pycnonotidae

89

Common Moorhen

---

Gallinula chloropus

Rallidae

04

Eurasian Coot

---

Fulica atra

06

Common Sandpiper

---

Actitis hypoleucos

Scolopacidae

23

Indian Nuthatch

---

Sitta castanea

Sittidae

01

Horned Owl

Ullu

Bubo virginianus

Strigidae

01

Spotted Owl

Ullu

Strix occidentalis

02

Bank Myna

Myna

Acridotheres ginginianus

Sturnidae

01

Bramhiny Myna

Maina

Sturnia pagodarum

12

Common Myna

Salhai/myna

Acridotheres tristis

46

Jungle Myna

Maina

Acridotheres fuscus

02

Indian Barn Owl

---

Tyto alba

Tytonidae

05

Eurasian Hoopoe

---

Upupa epops

Upupidae

06

Oriental White Eye

---

Zosterops palpebrosus

Zosteropidae

05

Total

1653


 

Figure 4: Species abundance of avifauna

 

Conclusion

 

The surface mining activity occurring in the area has negatively affected the richness and abundance of bird species. The three seasonal surveys, winter season surveys outputs highest populations of birds during the study. This study reveals that the most of the avifauna presence in the study site is in winter season. The result indicates the rich diversity and abundance of birds from observed seasonal variation of the study area. These result indicate that mining and its associated activities

 

 

have some impacts like habitat loss on the diversity and distribution of birds in the study area. The increment of mining and other developmental activities associated with it, in present situation has worsened, which will further enhance the rate of habitat disruption and their avifaunal diversity. The seasonal variations have been observed in the species composition and diversity of birds in open cast project Chhal, Dharamjaigarh Forest Division of Chhattisgarh. Education and outreach activities such as bird watching events to aware the people on importance of bird communities, would be crucial for conserving the habitat and avian diversity in the landscape.

Acknowledgement

Authors thank Open Cast Project Chhal, South Eastern Coalfield Limited, (Coal India Limited) Raigarh Officers for providing fund and logistic support during study period. Authors also thank Divisional Forest Officers Dharamjaigarh and Mr. Amit Kumar Baghel, Mr. Kamlesh Kumar Dadsena, Mr. Rajesh Kumar Toppo, Mr. Jeevan Shirin Toppo, and Mr. Ashutosh Pandey (Ex-SRF), State Forest Research and Training Institute, Raipur Chhattisgarh.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.

References

 Barov B (2011) Conservation and recovery of threatened birds in the European Union.  Bird Life Europe, Publications Office of the European Union Luxembourg, ISBN 978-92-79-20501-9, doi: 10.2779/92566.

Bibby CJ, Burgess ND, Hill DA, Mustoe S (1992) Bird Census Techniques. Academic Press London, ISBN 978-01-20-958313.

Grimmett R, Inskipp C, Inskipp T (2013) Birds of the Indian subcontinent India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and the Maldives. Bloomsbury Publishing, ISBN 9788193315095.

Martin TE, Blackburn GA (2010) Impacts of tropical forest disturbance upon avifauna on a small island with high endemism: implications for conservation. Conservation and Society, 8(2): 127-139.

Nikunj BJ, Mahato AK, Kumar VV (2013) Status, distribution, and diversity of birds in mining environment of Kachchh, Gujarat. International Journal of Biodiversity, 2013: 1-11.

Praveen J, Jayapal R, Pittie A (2018) Taxonomic updates to the checklist of birds of India and the south Asian region-2018. Indian Birds, 14(2): 37-42.

 Vishwakarma A, Pandey A, Baghel A (2018) Avifauna assessment of coal mining affected zone with compare to their dominance and species richness. International Journal of Science and Nature, 9(2): 244-247.

Whelan CJ, Sekercioglu CH, Wenny DG (2015) Why birds matter: from economic ornithology to ecosystem services. Journal of Ornithology, 156(1): 227-238.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



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